Prostate-specific antigen PSA Test for Prostate Cancer.

The United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the PSA test for annual screening of prostate cancer in men of age 50 and older.[ The patient is required to be informed of the risks and benefits of PSA testing prior to performing the test.[


PSA levels over 4 ng/mL (nanograms per milliliter) are considered to be suspicious and consideration should be given to confirming the abnormal PSA with a repeat test. If indicated, prostate biopsy is performed to obtain a tissue sample for histopathological analysis.[

While PSA testing may help 1 in 1,000 avoid death due to prostate cancer, 4 to 5 in 1,000 would die from prostate cancer after 10 years even with screening. This means that PSA screening may reduce mortality from prostate cancer by up to 25%. Expected harms include anxiety for 100 – 120 receiving false positives, biopsy pain, and other complications from biopsy for false positive tests

Of those found to have prostate cancer, overtreatment is common because most cases of prostate cancer are not expected to cause any symptoms due to low rate of growth of the prostate tumor. Therefore, many will experience the side effects of treatment, such as for every 1000 men screened, 29 will experience erectile dysfunction, 18 will suffer urinary incontinence, 2 will have serious cardiovascular events, one will suffer pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombosis, and one perioperative death.[failed verification] Since the expected harm relative to risk of death are perceived by patients as minimal, men found to have prostate cancer usually (up to 90% of cases) elect to receive treatment.